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Postado em 19 de dezembro, 2020
The details aren’t yet clear. Momentum in a particular direction then corresponds to the extent to which an update at one point leads to updates at nearby points along that direction. One of the great—and unexpected—things about the project is how well what we’ve discovered seems to dovetail with existing initiatives (like string theory, holographic principles, spin networks, higher categories, twistor theory, etc.) We talked about things like Git, where merge conflicts are like violations of causal invariances. In ordinary Turing machines, there are problems (like multiplying numbers) that are in the class P, meaning that they can be done a number of steps polynomial in the size of the problem (say, the number of digits in the numbers). And that’s a reasonable thing to want. (Presumably the reference frames that can be set up are limited by the computational capabilities of observers, which must be compared to the computations being done in the actual evolution of spacetime.) A Project to Find the Fundamental Theory of Physics is so full of insights that it seems overwhelming after just a few pages. Well, here’s the first neat thing we’ve realized: we can immediately reformulate our quantum computing framework directly in terms of multiway systems. I think there are going to be ways to write distributed programs “in different reference frames”. Assuming we’ve got a causal-invariant system, one feature of the multiway causal graph is that it must consist of many copies of the same spacetime causal graph—in a sense laid out (albeit with complicated interweaving) in branchial space. Wolfram, 54, was born in London and grew up in Oxford, winning a scholarship to Eton. OK, so what do C, P and T correspond to in our models? We imagined filling in the plane by making something like a string figure that joins points on the two vectors: But now there’s an easy generalization to the hypergraph. All software and visualization tools are based on the Wolfram Language and freely usable. It’s all about turning. Back in the mid-1980s, for example, when I was helping a company (Thinking Machines Corporation) that was building a 65536-processor computer (the Connection Machine), I thought the most plausible way to do programming on such a system would be through none other than graph rewriting. A historian of science I’ve known for a long time responded: Please remember as you go forward that, many protestations to the contrary, most scientists hate originality, which feels strange, uncomfortable, and baffling. Although I’m happy to say that in the case of our project it seems like there are actually a very good number of scientists who are enthusiastically making the effort to understand what we’ve done. On the livestream, we started relating this to the tensor Jμν which defines relativistic angular momentum (the two indices of Jμν basically correspond to our two geodesics). What is CPT invariance? We’ll be adding lots more items to the Visual Gallery. Wolfram Science Technology-enabling science of the computational universe. Well, we’ve argued that (with certain assumptions) spacetime slices of the multiway causal graph must obey the Einstein equations. How about networks? And how do our black holes generate things like Hawking radiation? // One way to imagine doing an NP problem in polynomial time is not to use an ordinary Turing machine, but instead to use a “non-deterministic Turing machine” in which there is a tree of possible paths where one can pick any path to follow. And in a couple of those sessions we’ve made the beginnings of some real discoveries—live and in public. Compute answers using Wolfram's breakthrough technology & knowledgebase, relied on by millions of students & professionals. Most of the time, progress is slow, with new results trickling out, and consensus about them gradually forming. But we’d still like to see explicitly how Bell’s inequality is violated—and in fact we suspect that in our multiway graph formalism it’ll be much more straightforward to see how this and its various generalizations work. A free inside look at company reviews and salaries posted anonymously by employees. But one point is clear: it has to involve not just the spatial hypergraph and the spacetime causal graph (as in our discussion of angular momentum above), but also the multiway causal graph. "The Wolfram Physics Project" calls on scientists of all disciplines to contribute. We’ve also already helped several people get started on projects that use their expertise—in physics, mathematics or computer science—and it’s wonderful to see the beginning of this kind of “scaling up”. How does one explain discrete space? It’s pretty cool to see thousands of people joining us to experience real-time science. One way to imagine doing an NP problem in polynomial time is not to use an ordinary Turing machine, but instead to use a “non-deterministic Turing machine” in which there is a tree of possible paths where one can pick any path to follow. Usually in distributed computing one’s interested in looking at a few paths, and making sure that, for example, nothing bad can happen as a result of different orders of execution. And I’m certainly enjoying trying to figure out more with our models—and trying to understand all sorts of things I’ve wondered about for nearly half a century. The quantum computing framework can in effect just be viewed as an application of our MultiwaySystem function that we put in the Wolfram Function Repository for the Physics Project. But it looks as if CPT invariance must just correspond to a symmetry of this generalized equation. And particularly since my livestream seemed to get good reviews from both kids and others, I’m planning in the next week or two to put together a written version of this as a kind of “very elementary” introduction to our project. One notable phenomenon that we’ll be looking at is the violation of Bell’s inequality—which is often said to “prove” that no “deterministic” theory can reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics. But what might the analog of this be in a hypergraph? It’s fine when one manages to get a combinator expression that can successfully be evaluated (through some path) to a fixed point. The Wolfram Physics Project is a project launched by computer scientist and physicist Stephen Wolfram to find the fundamental theory of physics. ), OK, so how about angular momentum? T and P then have simple interpretations: they correspond to reversing time edges and space edges, respectively. Stephen Wolfram (/ ˈ w ʊ l f r əm /; born 29 August 1959) is a British-American computer scientist, physicist, and businessman. Learn how », we’ve done more than 25 hours of livestreams, made the beginnings of some real discoveries, multiway system representing quantum mechanics, developing a framework for quantum computing, models can be applied is in distributed computing, one livestreamed working session about it, network of contacts, the spreading of a contagious disease, messy issues like just how many “almost fittest”, first got me interested in fundamental physics, I thought I finally understood how the Second Law works, was big news at the end of the 1800s and into the early 1900s, once we started seriously working on the ideas I originally hatched 30 years ago, publish academic papers in the 1970s and early 1980s. Wolfram|Alpha » Explore anything with the first computational knowledge engine. Science is usually done behind closed doors. Here’s part of where we figured that out: We already figured out a few months ago what linear momentum is. Usually it’s been difficult to get a consistent “after the fact” discretization of the path integral; but now it’s something that emerges from our models. And the biggest focus seems to be around “What about peer review?”. (It’s again mathematically complicated, because we’re not intrinsically dealing with integer-dimensional space, so we’ve got to generalize the notion of rotation, rotation groups, etc.). For example, just like lots of rules for discrete molecules yield the same limiting thermodynamic behavior, I expect lots of rules for the updating events that give the causal graph will yield the same limiting spacetime structure. The blog post announcing the project … Of course, this is just what we’re directly working on ourselves. MathWorld » The web's most extensive mathematics resource. We’ve had lots of physicists, mathematicians, computer scientists and others asking questions, making suggestions and offering help. In Q&A sessions that we’ve done, and messages that we’ve received, there’ve been many requests to reproduce a classic quantum result: interference in the double-slit experiment. We can think of the branching of paths in the multiway system as corresponding to elementary pieces of ambiguity. And in a sense the handling of our model—and the features of physics that emerge—is about having ways to deal with “ambiguity in bulk”. Wolframs Theory Of The Universe Physics Project Article Review. But it is intriguing to consider that a quantum computer could actually handle “all the threads” simultaneously, and this could definitely explain why. But now there’s a generalization of both these things: in effect, a generalization of the Einstein equations that applies to the whole multiway causal graph. And that ideas from physics in the context of our models are going to give one new ways to think about distributed computing. This is a time of great opportunity, where all sorts of discoveries are ripe to be made. But the thousands of messages we’ve received tell a very different story. A few months ago, I would have been very pessimistic about being able to do this. And C is charge conjugation: turning particles (like electrons) into antiparticles (like positrons). Our livestreams—even very technical ones—have been exceptionally popular. And that means we’re dealing not just with a single rotation, but a whole collection of interwoven ones. I was surprised it took about a week to get posted, and I was thinking it might have run into some filter that blocks any paper about a fundamental theory of physics—on the “Bayesian” grounds that there’s never been a meaningful paper with such a claim during the time arXiv has been operating. A visual summary of Wolfram's theory. Write a review. A classical computer like an ordinary Turing machine is effectively just following one deterministic path of evolution. So maybe we’ll be able, for example, just to look at a multiway system generated by a string substitution system, and already be able to see something like interference fringes in an idealized double-slit experiment. There is a pernicious effect here that Wolfram is taking advantage of. An extreme case of this arises in evaluating S, K combinators. Is there an analog of the Feynman path integral in distributed computing? The way I know I really understand something is when I can explain it absolutely from the ground up. But in multiway systems we’re not just looking at a few paths; we’re looking at all paths. Here’s a toy version of it, that we discussed in a livestream last week: Edges in one direction (say, down) correspond to time. Clone with Git or checkout with SVN using the repository’s web address. How should you evaluate this? But it won’t just be pictures. And the extent to which one can get answers before decoherence takes over has to do with a competition between these kinds of edges. Still, we immediately started thinking about going further. I think there’s also always been skullduggery with anonymous peer review—often beyond my simplified “natural selection” model: “If paper cites reviewer, accept; otherwise reject”. Peer review of specific sections and the entire paper for the Wolfram Physics Project. And I think it’s going to be possible to think about distributed computing in the same kind of way. Related to the whole story about spinors, there’s a fundamental result in quantum field theory called the spin-statistics theorem that says that particles with half-integer spins (like electrons) are fermions (and so obey the exclusion principle), while particles with integer spins (like photons) are bosons (and so can form condensates). Of course, there are people who think “This isn’t the way science usually works; something must be wrong”. Not mentioned (afaik) but conceptually relevant: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laplacian_matrix, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nondeterministic_Turing_machine, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Wolfram, https://www.stephenwolfram.com/publications/academic/?cat=all, https://www.youtube.com/user/WolframResearch/, ### Wolfram Language / Mathematica (currently v12+) / WolframAlpha, https://writings.stephenwolfram.com/2019/04/version-12-launches-today-big-jump-for-wolfram-language-and-mathematica/, https://www.wolfram-media.com/products/a-project-to-find-the-fundamental-theory-of-physics.html, https://writings.stephenwolfram.com/2020/04/how-we-got-here-the-backstory-of-the-wolfram-physics-project/, https://www.wolframscience.com/nks/chap-9--fundamental-physics/, https://www.wolframphysics.org/technical-documents/, * https://www.wolframcloud.com/obj/wolframphysics/Documents/some-relativistic-and-gravitational-properties-of-the-wolfram-model.pdf, * https://www.wolframcloud.com/obj/wolframphysics/Documents/some-quantum-mechanical-properties-of-the-wolfram-model.pdf. We ordinarily think of a rotation through 360° as bringing everything back to where it started from. So in the last couple of weeks I’ve been surprised to see so many people asking us whether we’ve managed to understand the Second Law. In a livestream last week, we generated a very toy version of a black hole, with a causal graph of the form: This “black hole” has the feature that causal edges go into it, but none come out. The idea is to have an open process, where people comment on our papers, and all relevant comments and comments-on-comments, etc. Edges in another direction correspond to space. The project builds on Wolfram's previous research into computational systems, as explored in his book, A New Kind of Science.The project was launched in April 2020 with the main contributors being Stephen Wolfram, Jonathan Gorard and Max Piskunov. So we started wondering whether somehow this could be used in practice to set up simulations. If a paper of mine was novel though not particularly original, it sailed right through peer review. Strictly speaking, the Wolfram Physics project isn’t science and is merely a collection of ideas (with a lot of marketing). In the simplest setup, one just assumes that all the computing elements are operating in lockstep—like in a cellular automaton. Because, to my great surprise, once we started seriously working on the ideas I originally hatched 30 years ago we suddenly discovered that we could make dramatic progress. But we’ll see. But the graph of what phones were close to what phones can be thought of as being like a causal graph. But particularly for people outside of science, it’s convenient to at least imagine that there’s some perfect standard of academic validity out there. Was our first real “ aha ” moment in a multiway graph is entirely determined by flux... Basis for quantum mechanics in Euclidean rather than reasoned disagreement about what ’ pretty... 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