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Postado em 19 de dezembro, 2020
Language Movement began in 1948 and reached its climax in the killing of 21 February 1952, and ended in the adoption of Bangla as one of the state languages of Pakistan. He retorted that "Urdu was the language of dancing girls and prostitutes" (Ibid, page90). Dr. Muhammad Shahidullah, a respected Muslim linguist and Bengali scholar who overtly expressed his support for Bengali to be an official language of Pakistan and wrote an article about the issue called "The Language Problem in Pakistan". Many scholars from East Pakistan argued that Bengali had a long and distinguished history that matched that of Urdu. Alas we would have realized the importance of language Singapore has 5 official languages and the prosperity knows no bounds. However, the police arrested several students for violating section 144 as they attempted to leave. The central education minister Fazlur Rahman made extensive preparations to make Urdu the only state language of the Dominion of Pakistan. Urdu to Bengali translation service by ImTranslator will assist you in getting an instant translation of words, phrases and texts from Urdu to Bengali and other languages. This was mainly due to lack of representative government in the fledgling state. On 31 January, the Shorbodolio Kendrio Rashtrobhasha Kormi Porishod (All-Party Central Language Action Committee) was formed in a meeting at the Bar Library Hall of the University of Dhaka, chaired by Maulana … Urdu wird auch in Afghanistan in Gedichten verwendet und in afghanischen Schulen als Fremdsprache unterrichtet. , The United Front ministry ordered the creation of the Bangla Academy to promote, develop, and preserve Bengali language, literature, and heritage. Free Essays on The Urdu Hindi Controversy . , Students of the University of Dhaka and other colleges of the city organised a general strike on 11 March 1948 to protest the omission of Bengali language from official use, including coins, stamps and recruitment tests for the navy. Lately, Urdu was considered as the language of the Muslim elite of the dying Mughal Empire. Police and paramilitary forces charged into the crowd hitting students with batons, spraying tear gas shells, and eventually shooting at the students. Previous Post. The Global Nonviolent Action Database is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license unless otherwise noted.  In an attempt to prevent the demonstration, the government imposed Section 144 in Dhaka, thereby banning any gathering. The next day, 22 February 1952, people who had been demonstrating, along with citizens of Dhaka took part in a prayer vigil and mourning procession for the victims of the shootings. Other books, especially by supporters of Urdu, invoke simplistic conspiracy theories for explaining the opposition to Urdu.  The rejection of the "Urdu-only" policy was seen as a contravention of the Perso-Arabic culture of Muslims and the founding ideology of Pakistan, the two-nation theory. Ekushey Padak, one of the highest civilian awards in Bangladesh, is awarded annually in memory of the sacrifices of the movement. The Urdu-Bengali controversy was reignited when Jinnah's successor, governor-general Khawaja Nazimuddin, staunchly defended the "Urdu-only" policy in a speech on 27 January 1952. Pakistan faced this problem in early years of its independence when language controversy exercised far-reaching effects on subsequent history of the country as a whole.  Inaugurated by the father of the slain activist Sofiur Rahman, the monument was destroyed on 26 February by police. It is a date that was inked in history by bloodshed and sacrifice for the love of the language in a one-of-a-kind movement in then East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). , In the height of civic unrest, Governor-General of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah arrived in Dhaka on 19 March 1948. When a group of students sought to storm into the building, police opened fire and killed a number of students, including Abdus Salam, Rafiq Uddin Ahmed, Sofiur Rahman, Abul Barkat and Abdul Jabbar. Proponents of Urdu such as Maulvi Abdul Haq condemned any proposal to grant official status to Bengali. In 1999, UNESCO declared 21 February as International Mother Language Day, in tribute to the Language Movement and the ethno-linguistic rights of people around the world. First of all Bengali is not a language it is the name of Our culture . Dhirendrana Datta, a representative from the East Pakistan Congress Party, requested a motion to include Bengali at the Assembly. Search. On 15 September 1947, they published a popular booklet called “Pakistaner Rashtro Bhasha Bangla na Urdu?” (Is Pakistan’s State Language Bengali or is it Urdu?) To do this: Select the Start button, and then select Settings > Time & Language > Language. The police killed several people, and the next day protesters constructed a small memorial where the people had been shot and killed. The Hindi-Urdu controversy arose in 1867 when the British government prepared to accept the demand of the Hindu communities of the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh) and Bihar to change the Perso-Arabic script of the official language to Devanagari and adopt Hindi as the second official language on demand of Hindu activists. The Bengali Language Movement (Bengali: ভাষা আন্দোলন Bhasha Andolôn) was a political movement in former East Bengal (renamed East Pakistan in 1956 and Bangladesh in 1971) advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of the then-Dominion of Pakistan in order to allow its use in government affairs, the continuation of its use as a medium of education, its use in media, currency and stamps, and to maintain its writing in the Bengali script. The Chief Minister of East Pakistan, West Pakistani leaders, and the Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan opposed the motion. If that was the case, the other provinces would have separated as well, since Urdu has the same status as in 50s and 60s. Police fired tear gas shells towards the gate to warn the students.  Public outrage spread, and many Bengali students met on the University of Dhaka campus on 8 December 1947 to formally demand that Bengali be made an official language. Language is an important aspect of culture as it communicates and preserves heritage, ideas, and identity.  A section of students ran into the Dhaka Medical College while others rallied towards the university premises cordoned by the police. Willingness to communicate through the same language is …  Since the events of February 1952, poems, songs, novels, plays, films, cartoons and paintings were created to capture the movement from varied point of views.  However, West Pakistani politicians such as Fazlur Rahman aggravated sectional tensions by declaring that anyone who wanted Bengali to become an official language would be considered an "enemy of the state". the need for national cohesion and Urdu was used as the major symbol of this by M. A. Jinnah, the father of the nation himself, in his well-known speech supporting Urdu as the sole state language (Jinnah, 1948). The campaign ended by 23 February 1952, and after a span of two years and one month, the Constituent Assembly voted on 7 May 1954 in support of Bengali as one of the official languages of Pakistan. https://web.archive.org/web/20151213055103/http://www.londoni.co/index.php/history-of-bangladesh?id=. Following the independence of Pakistan, Abul Kashem, Professor of Physics at the University of Dhaka in Dhaka, the capital of East Pakistan, organized the first meeting of Tamaddun Majilish.  Hamidur Rahman's model consisted of a large complex in the yard of the Dhaka Medical College Hostel. Pakistan and India became independent from British rule in August of 1947. Hindi is my mother tongue and I know little bangla and Urdu. Dhaka. NOW hindi-urdu, punjabi, bengali all belongs to the Indo-Aryan language family. In 1948, the Government of the Dominion of Pakistan ordained Urdu as the sole national language, sparking extensive protests among the Bengali-speaking majority of East Bengal. Though Bengali leaders from East Pakistan and leaders in Tamaddun Majilish opposed the resolutions at the conference, the Pakistani government began using exclusively Urdu on all currency, money order forms, postal stamps, official letterheads, and railway tickets.  Most stood by the "Urdu only" policy because they believed that only a single language, one that was not indigenous to Pakistan, should serve as the national language. Demonstrations broke out on the night of 21 February 1954 with various halls of the University of Dhaka raising black flags in mourning. outlining demands for Bengali to be an official language, Dr. Muhammad Shahidullah, a respected linguist and scholar from East Pakistan defends the importance of Bengali as an official language of Pakistan, All Language Action Committee sent in a declaration of demands to the Pakistani government, A small memorial was constructed the day after students had been killed at the location of their death on 21 and 22 February 1952. The ruling Muslim League denounced the opposition United Front coalition, which—led by A. K. Fazlul Huq and the Awami League—wanted greater provincial autonomy. Political leaders such as Shamsul Huq, Shawkat Ali, M Sirajul Islam, Kazi Golam Mahboob, Oli Ahad, Abdul Wahed and others were arrested during the rallies. Withholding or withdrawal of allegiance, 122.  However, the United Front rule was temporary, as Governor General Ghulam Muhammad cancelled the government and started Governor's rule on 30 May 1954. The design included a half-circular column symbolizing a mother with her martyred sons standing at the dais in the centre of the monument. To these comments, East Pakistanis responded with large protests throughout East Pakistan, and the All Language Action Committee sent a memorandum to the Pakistani government demanding again that the Bengali language become one of the official languages.  Police fired on a major janaza, or mourning rally, as it was passing through Nawabpur Road. Supporters of Bengali opposed Urdu even before the partition of India, when delegates from Bengal rejected the idea of making Urdu the lingua franca of Muslim India in the 1937 Lucknow session of the Muslim League. Typically, the Global Nonviolent Action Database requires a victory to occur within two years. English-Urdu controversy in Pakistan with a view to determining the political aspects of this controversy. Urdu is widely known as the national language (قومی زبان/qaumi zabaan where “zabaan” is a fem. Urdu-Hindi Controversy (1867) Follow Us On: Facebook.  Ekushey Television, the first private terrestrial TV channel of Bangladesh was named after the Event of 21 February. The Urdu-Bengali controversy was reignited when Jinnah's successor, governor-general Khawaja Nazimuddin, staunchly defended the "Urdu-only" policy in a speech on 27 January 1952. Is Urdu a separate language in its own right or just another name of Hindustani / Hindi language with a Persian script is yet to be proven. Bangla is the language used by us . Protest slowed and stopped after 23 February 1952. The Shaheed Minar monument was constructed near Dhaka Medical College in memory of the movement and its victims. Aligarh Movement.  Continuing strikes were observed the following four days.  Datta's proposal was supported by legislators Prem Hari Burman, Bhupendra Kumar Datta and Sris Chandra Chattaopadhyaya of East Bengal, as well as the people from the region. The vice-chancellor asked police to stop firing and ordered the students to leave the area. Students at Dhaka University also met to discuss Section 144 and decided to continue. Chapter 2: The Hindi and Urdu Controversy: A Linguistic Assessment As shown in the figure 2.1, Urdu numerically ranks 6"" among the eighth scheduled languages of India. Pakistan (known as West Pakistan 1947-1971) and Bangladesh (known as East Pakistan 1947-1971), Most of the actions and protests occurred in Dhaka, the capital of East Pakistan (modern day Bangladesh). Although the imposition of martial law in 1958 interrupted the work, the monument was completed and inaugurated on 21 February 1963 by Abul Barkat's mother, Hasina Begum. Declarations by organizations and institutions, 145. Students, in response, threw bricks at the police. Then which language is older and which is newer. For the movement in India, see, Articles related to the Language Movement, Constitutional status as a state language, Glassie, Henry and Mahmud, Feroz.2008.Living Traditions. -To gain support for his views Sir Syed set up an Urdu journal called Tahdhih-ul-Akhlaq. , However, the military government formed by Ayub Khan made attempts to re-establish Urdu as the sole national language. Due to geopolitical discontinuity the speakers of Urdu language … The British Imperial Government, the Indian Muslim League, and the Indian National Congress split the region based on religious lines of Hinduism and Islam. In 1947, before the independence of Pakistan and India, a comment made by Dr. Muhammad Shahidullah, a respected Bengali linguist and scholar from Dhaka University, is thought to mark the beginning of the Bengali Language Movement.  The Committee completed its report on 6 December 1950. Literature and speeches advocating resistance, 003. , Political tensions came to a head as elections to the provincial assembly of East Bengal were held in 1954. After Pakistan's "founding father" Muhammad Ali Jinnah and, later, fellow Bengali Khwaja Nazimuddin declared Urdu as the official state language, protest erupted throughout the eastern wing. To promote their cause, Bengali students organised processions and rallies in Dhaka. Under Preferred languages, select Add a language. Facing rising sectarian tensions and mass discontent with the new law, the government outlawed public meetings and rallies. Two years after the first monument was destroyed by the police, a new Shaheed Minar (Monument of Martyrs) was constructed in 1954 to commemorate the protesters who lost their lives. 'S house was stopped in Front of the Muslim League 's decision station has portraits..., Outside East Bengal into a political issue at the dais in the of... 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